Sutras 2.1-2.55

2.1 ​The practice of Yoga must reduce both physical and mental impurities. It must develop our capacity for self- examination and help us to understand that, in the final analysis, we are not the masters of everything we do.
2.2  Then such practice will be certain to remove obstacles to clear perception.
2.3  The obstacles are misapprehensions confused values, excessive attachments, unreasonable dislikes, and insecurity.
2.4  Misapprehension is the source of all the other obstacles. They need not appear simultaneously and their impact varies. Sometimes they are obscure and barely visible; at other times they are exposed and dominant.
2.5  Misapprehension leads to errors in comprehension of the character, origin, and effects of the objects perceived.
2.6  False identity results when we regard mental activity as the very source of perception.
2.7  Excessive attachment is based on the assumption that it will contribute to everlasting happiness.
2.8  Unreasonable dislikes are usually the result of painful experiences in the past connected with particular objects and situations.
2.9 ​ Insecurity is the inborn feeling of anxiety for what is to come. It affects both the ignorant and the wise.
2.10  When the obstacles do not seem to be present, it is important to be vigilant.
2.11  ​Advance toward a state of reflection to reduce their impact and prevent them from taking over.
2.12  Our actions and their consequences are influenced by these obstacles. The consequences may or may not be evident at the time of the action.
2.13  As long as the obstacles prevail they will affect action in every respect: in its execution, its duration, and its consequences.
2.14  The consequences of an action will be painful or beneficial depending on whether the obstacles were present in the concept or implementation of the action.
2.15  Painful effects from any object or situation can be a result of one or more of the following; changes in the perceived object, the desire to repeat pleasurable experiences, and the strong effect of conditioning from the past. In addition, changes within the individual can be contributing factors.
2.16  Painful effects that are likely to occur should be anticipated and avoided.
2.17  The cause of actions that produce painful effects is the inability to distinguish what is perceived from what perceives.
2.18  ​All that is perceived includes not only the external objects but also the mind and the senses. They share three qualities: heaviness activity and clarity. They have two types of effects; to expose the perceiver to thier influences, or to provide the means to find the distinction between them and itself.
2.19  ​All that is perceived is related by the common sharing of the three qualities.
2.20  ​That which perceives is not subject to any variations But it always perceives through the mind.
2.21  All that can be perceived has but one purpose: to be perceived.
2.22  The existence of all objects of perception and their appearance is independent of the needs of the individual perceiver. They exist without individual reference, to cater for the different needs of different individuals.
2.23  All that is perceived whatever it is and whatever its effect may be on a particular individual, has but one ultimate purpose. That is to clarity the distinction between the external that is seen and the internal that sees.
2.24  ​The absence of clarity in distinguishing between what perceives and what is perceived is due to the accumulation of misapprehension.
2.25  As misapprehension is reduced there is a corresponding increase in clarity. This is the path to freedom.
2.26  Essential the means must be directed toward developing clarity so that the distinction between the changing qualities of what is perceived and the unchanging quality of what perceives becomes evident.
2.27  The attainment of clarity is a gradual process.
2.28  The practice and inquiry into different components of Yoga gradually reduce the obstacles such as misapprehension (Sutra 2.3). Then the lamp of perception brightens and the distinction between what perceives and what is perceived becomes more and more evident. Now everything can be understood without error.
2.29  There are eight components of Yoga. There are :
1) yama, our attitudes toward our environment.
2) Niyama, our attitudes toward ourselves.
3) Asana, the practice of body exercises
4) Pranayama, the practice  of breathing exercises.
5) Pratyahara, the  restraint of our senses.
6) Dharana, the ability to direct our minds.
7) Dhayana, the ability to develop interactions with what we seek to understand.
8) Samadhi complete integration with the object to be understood.
2.30  Yama comprises :
1) Consideration for all living things, especially those who are innocent, in difficulty, or worse off than we are.
2) Right communication through speech, writings, gesture, and actions.
3) Noncovetousness or the ability to resist a desire for that which does not belong to us.
4) Moderation in all our actions.
5) Nongreediness or the ability to accept only what is appropriate.
2.31 When the adoption of these attitudes in our environment is beyond compromise, regardless of our social, cultural, intellectual or individual station, it approaches irreversibility.
2.32 ​ xxxxxxx comprises :
1) Cleanness, or keeping our bodies and our surroundings clean and neat.
2) Contentment, or the ability to be comfortable with what we have and what we do not have.
3) The removal of impurities in our physical and mental systems through the maintenance of such correct habits as sleep, exercise, nutrition, work and relaxation.
4) Study and the necessity to review and evaluate our progress.
5) Reverence to a higher intelligence or the acceptance of our limitations in relation to God. The all –knowing.
2.33 ​ When these attitudes are questioned, self-reflection on the possible consequences of alternative attitudes may help.
2.34  For example, a sudden desire to act harshly, or encourage or approve of harsh actions can be contained by reflecting on the harmful consequences. Often such actions are the results of lower instincts such as anger, possessiveness, or unsound judgment. Whether these actions are minor or major, reflection in a suitable atmosphere can contain our desires to act in this way.
2.35 ​ The more considerate one is, the more one stimulates friendly feelings among all in one’s presence.
2.36 ​ One who shows a high degree of right communication will not fail in his actions.
2.37  One who is trustworthy, because he does not covet what belongs to others, naturally has everyone’s confidence and everything is shared with him, however precious it might be.
2.38  At its best, moderation produces the highest individual vitality.
2.39  One who is not greedy is secure. He has time to think deeply. His understanding of himself is complete.
2.40  When cleanliness is developed it reveals what needs to be constantly maintained and what is eternally clean. What decays is the external. What does not is deep within us.
2.41 In addition one becomes able to reflect on the very deep nature of our individual selves, including the source of perception, without being distracted by the senses and with freedom from misapprehension accumulated from the past.
2.42  The result of contentment is total happiness.
2.43  ​The removal of impurities allows the body to function more efficiently.
2.44  Study, when it is developed to the highest degree, brings one close to higher forces that promote understanding of the most complex.
2.45  ​Reverence to God promotes the ability to completely understand any object of choice.
2.46  Asana must have the qualities of alertness and relaxation.
2.47  These qualities can be achieved by recognizing and observing the reactions of the body and the breath to the various postures that comprise asana practice. Once known, these reactions can be controlled step-by step.
2.48  When these principles are correctly followed, asana practice will help a person endure and even minimize the external influence on the body such as age, climate, diet, and work.
2.49  Pranayama is the conscious, deliberate regulation of the breath replacing unconscious patterns of breathing. It is possible only after a reasonable mastery of asana practice.
2.50 It involves the regulation of the exhalation, the inhalation, and the suspension of the breath. The regulation of these three processes is achieved by modulating their length and maintaining this modulation for a period time, as well as directing the mind into the process. These components of breathing must be both long and uniform.
2.51 Then the breath transcends the level of the consciousness.
2.52  The regular practice of pranayama reduces the obstacles that inhibit clear perception.
2.53  ​And the mind is now prepared for the process of direction toward a chosen goal.
2.54  The restraint of senses occurs when the mind is able to remain in its chosen direction and the senses disregard the different objects around them and faithfully follow the direction of the mind.
2.55  Then the senses are mastered.


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